Organization of the production of solar cells

Організація виробництва сонячних елементівKeywords
Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology use new fuels, renewable and alternative energy sources

Description
In recent years the percentage of solar panels on the market of alternative energy sources is growing steadily.
One of the advantages of using solar panels is the fact that photovoltaic power station (PPS), the most eco-friendly and easily erected, thanks to its modular design.
All existing solar cells are based on the photoelectric effect. The main disadvantage of these systems is their low efficiency (average 15%).
Today, there are several technologies for production of solar panels. It is based on the different absorption of solar radiation by different materials. Solar energy has the perspectives of the development and distribution on the global market thanks to the discovery of a new class of materials - nanomaterials, this direction is studied by leading research groups in the world. In particular, the porous material should be distinguished - because of the highly increase of the working area of the plate (due to the presence of large number of pores on the surface), will significantly increase the efficiency of solar cells, and the intensity of light absorption, entrapment of large amounts of energy over a long service life (improving the lifetime of the device).
In this project, the manufacturing of solar cells based on silicon technology is proposed, however, using porous silicon. In addition, the term object is to provide solar cells based on other semiconductors, including indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, indium nitride.
So given classic technology of solar cells and our proposed model of quality improvement, it is proposed two-step technique:
First stage - obtaining porous silicon layers
The second stage - the production of solar cells directly.

Innovative aspect and main advantages:
One of the advantages of using solar panels is the fact that photovoltaic power station (PPS), the most eco-friendly and easily erected, thanks to its modular design.
Furthermore, PPS is characterized by:
- High reliability (so far they are power source for almost all satellites orbiting the Earth, because they work without a break, and require almost no maintenance),
- Low operating costs (due to the absence of moving parts, PPS not require special care)
- Environmental friendliness (it is quiet and clean the modules during their operation is not burning fuel)
- Modularity (Due to this property, PPS can reach very different sizes, depending on the power requirements)
- Long life (work up to 30 years)
- The low cost of construction (usually PPS building close to the user, ie, there is no need to pull the power lines over long distances, no need to buy transformers)
- The independence of PPS from energy price changes.
Relief surface of porous silicon efficient at absorbing photons, dramatically reduces the reflection losses of light. Using thin layers of porous silicon allows to reduce the reflection loss by increasing of the surface area.

Advantages of solutions based on porous silicon:
- High efficiency (20% or higher);
- The target range of the transformed electromagnetic radiation extends to the entire visible spectrum, including its long-wave. Also decreases the sensitivity of solar cells to surface contamination;
- Does not require the application of anti-reflection coating;
- Low cost per unit area of the solar battery (supplied by cost parameters of the base technology of porous silicon).

Problem solved:
The search for new energy sources and increasing the efficiency of the previously known is an important task of modern industry. Special attention deserve safe, clean energies. The latter category includes converters of sunlight into electricity using semiconductor materials. In this regard, the global market is intensive work on technology development and lower prices for solar panels. Governments in many countries are adopting support programs of solar energy. Currently, the share of solar energy accounts for 14% of all generating facilities from renewable energy sources. This number is growing at a rapid pace. In 2012, the solar energy sector remained the most preferred by investors. More than half of the 8 billion investment in alternative energy were directed to the development of solar plants.
According to forecasts of Deutsche Bank, taking into account the estimates of Citigroup Inc, HSBC Holdings Plc, IHS and BNEF, this segment is expected to transition from the "subsidized" to "sustainable" in the 2013-2014 year, explaining that the advent of "grid parity" in several key markets, as well as the expected increase in demand, while the more stable prices for polysilicon - the main raw material for manufacturers of the industry. Specialists GlobalData's report, "grid parity for wind and solar energy - a look into the future and impact analysis" argue that the rapidly declining price of solar energy by 2017. will be lower than the price of electricity produced from traditional fuels.
New Energy Strategy, approved by the Ukrainian government in early 2006 suggests that our state will increase the use of alternative energy sources by four times, from 10.9 Mtoe (million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2005 to 40.4 Mtoe in 2030. The initiative will require investment in the energy sector of around 60.4 billion hryvnia, or 7.9 billion euros. In 2009 the Ukrainian parliament adopted the law on subsidized tariffs for electricity produced from non-traditional sources, ie "Green" tariffs. Since January 1, 2013, to get a "green tariff" in relation to electricity generated using solar radiation, solar modules are to be used with the share of Ukrainian origin of raw materials in the cost of production of at least 30% or at least 50% starting from January 1, 2014.

Development status:
Prototype with favorable lab results

Potential customers, markets:
- Roofs to generate electricity,
- Street and garden lights,
- Recharging batteries
- Provision of electricity equipment on ships
- Radios, pumps, alarms,
- Electric,
- Cosmic energy, etc.