Cryogenic energy storage system

Cryogenic energy storage system
Technology description
Cryogenic storage of electricity - is a new technology in the energy sector. Air can be turned into a liquid by cooling it to around -196C using standard industrial equipment. 700 litres of ambient air becomes about 1 litre of liquid air, which can then be stored in an unpressurised insulated vessel. When heat is reintroduced to liquid air it boils and turns back into a gas, expanding 700 times in volume. This expansion can be used to drive a piston engine or turbine to do useful work. Similarly to the work of pumped-storage stations, this system allows you to accumulate energy during low demand (at night) and use it during periods of high demand (morning and evening peak hours), thereby aligning grid load. In terms of the Ukraine energy sector reformation (the appearance of the balancing market), this system will provide a significant profit from the difference in peak/night value of electricity.

Novelty
There is the same product on the market, but the technology has higher quality basic specifications
The proposed technology cheaper, easier, smaller and more convenient in usage
new in the country
Implementation of technology is economically reasonable
There is a similar technology – compressed air energy storage (CAES) - but it needs cavities in the ground (eg, salt mines) to store large volumes of compressed air. The system of cryogenic storage of electricity is similar to Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) and CAES in technical and economic characteristics, but does not require special geological conditions and significant areas for construction. Due to this, Cryogenic energy storage system system can be installed directly into the load centers without the need for the creation of a step-up transformer substation.
Another advantage of this technology is the ability to quickly build plants (2-6 months), since it uses standard industrial equipment (for comparison: the construction of PSH and CAES takes 5-10 years).

Solved problems
Unevenness of electricity consumption during the day is one of the main problems of Power Sector. Balance of Ukrainian power grid is characterized by a deficit as maneuverable and regulatory capacity; share of hydro power plants, which provide the bulk of regulatory capacity in the overall balance of power does not exceed 9% for the optimal level of 15%. As a result, thermal power stations (TPS) and nuclear power stations (NPS) designed for use in basic mode, are used to support variable load demand of the grid. The ability to spread in time production and consumption of electricity by accumulation it in a large scale is one of the most effective ways to solve problems of covering peak consumption, passing a night fall of load for big thermal and nuclear power plants, and increase the share of non-regulated renewable energy.

Stage of Development
Conceptual stage (idea)

Markets
Energy storage is poised to grow dramatically, requiring large investment in manufacturing capacity and jobs.
According to BRANAN (Power Review №5, 2010), in 2010 the market of electricity energy storage devices that are connected to the grid, will be about $ 1.5 billion. Expected that in the next 10 years, the market will grow at an annual rate of about 37% to reach $ 35 billion at 20201.
According to an Information Handling Services, Cambridge Energy Research Associates (IHS CERA) report, the energy storage business could grow from $200 million in 2012 to a $19 billion industry by 20172.

Competitors, substitute goods, entry barriers
There are many energy storage technologies, but they all (exept PSH) are in the early stages of development.
According to 1,2 95% of electricity storage capacity is accounted for Pumped-storage hydroelectricity, 1.8% for CAES, 1.75% for thermal storage, 1.3% for chemical batteries, flywheels at 0.15%.
Currently cryogenic storage should be used in the power range 10-250 MW at a cost of £ 500-1,250/kW (for comparison, PSH - £ 1,000-1,300 / kW) for the UK. The cost can be significantly reduced with the use of local components and the development of technology.

Risks of the project and anti-risk activities
Currently the technology is at the conceptual stage and is not ready for commercial use. There is a prototype of the installation in Slough, UK. Currently Centre for Low Carbon Futures is engaged in technology development, an organization that brings together leading British universities in the direction of the energy efficient technologies.
In Ukraine, where there is an urgent need for regulation capacity, this technology is virtually unknown. In-depth research and collaboration with leading universities are required to improve the competitiveness of the technology. Our team has several innovative ideas in combining this technology with other accumulative technologies that synergistically enhance efficiency.
Cryogenic energy storage system