Biological wastewater treatment technology of various origins

Технология биологической очистки сточных вод различного происхождения

Keywords
Energy and Energy Efficiency Sustainable natural resource management Environment Biotechnology

Description
Biological wastewater treatment technology of different origin while obtaining energy (biogas or hydrogen) that achieves modern regulatory parameters of water intended for discharge into natural water bodies.
The technology consistently in structures with different oxygen conditions (anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic) using immobilized on the fibrous support biocenosis is implemented.
Technology in municipal wastewater treatment plants, plants (tannery, dairies, breweries) is implemented. Technology may modify the wastewater of various compositions and concentrations for organic and inorganic substances, such as oil wastewater systems.

Innovative aspect and main advantages:
The existing physical-chemical wastewater treatment technologies require the use of substances that may themselves cause pollution, is energy-intensive, require additional recycling technologies derived substances do not solve the problems of utilization of rainfall. Modern technology of biological wastewater treatment, developed Colloid and Water Chemistry, Institute of VODGEO, as well as modern company using anaerobic process with granular activated sludge in UASB-reactors; Ludzak-Ettinger, Bardenpho, Biodenitro, Carrousel, JHB, UCT, MUCT, A2/O, can effectively clean wastewater, but are characterized by high operating and capital costs.
In the first stages multi-stage anaerobic-aerobic wastewater treatment technologies anaerobic decomposition organic compounds by microorganisms, heterotrophic with the release of biogas or hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide is formed in the anaerobic stage is a compound that sequesters heavy metals if present in the wastewater. After treatment may precipitate their removal.
To improve the mass transfer between the waste water and immobilized on the surface of the fibrous carrier microorganisms, as well as for irrigation carrier surface arranged in the gas phase anaerobic bioreactors circulation pump.
After anaerobic bioreactor wastewater are consecutively in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors. For anoxic conditions and mass transfer structures arranged on the bottom for fine-bubble aeration diffusers which provide dissolved oxygen concentration of about 0.5 dm3. The concentration of air in aerobic bioreactors - about 2 dm3. Organic substances contained in the waste water after the anaerobic treatment are decomposed, the oxidation of nitrogen compounds anamoks process in a thickness bioobrostany - denitrification, etc. under the heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria. Processes occurring on the surface of carriers in the bulk biofouling, and with the participation of free-swimming organisms.
Treated waste water flows into the settling tanks, which removes particles float freely biofouling and silt, which are taken from the aerobic bioreactor (sludge). Lighted wastewater can meet the standards and can be discharged into water bodies. The sludge from the clarifier with a high degree of mineralization of sludge can be removed by drying and platforms for recycling, for example as a fertilizer. Metals can also be adsorbed on the surface of microorganisms or cells accumulated in the sludge processing may remove them for later use.

Problem solved:
The main cause of surface water pollution is the discharge of untreated and inadequately treated domestic and industrial wastewater, resulting in anaerobic processes, decay of organic contaminants and, eventually, to the unsuitability of water-sewage receivers for the needs of water, fish kills, blooms and overgrown, difficulty recreational use of water bodies. Especially dangerous effluents of several industries (light, food, oil complexes) that contain high concentrations of suspended solids, high molecular weight organic compounds, as well as fats, detergents, ions of heavy metals and other pollutants.
For treatment of many types of municipal and industrial waste waters mainly using traditional technology in the biological treatment in the aeration tanks aerobic oxidation with active sludge. The use of these technologies for the treatment of highly concentrated wastewater has several disadvantages: the impact on the effectiveness of treatment of wastewater irregularity of performance and concentrations of contaminants, the dependence on the temperature (low and rapidly changing temperatures slow down the process), pH, toxic sludge for substances (surfactants, ion heavy metals, dyes, etc.), purified water quality discrepancy established norms (especially nitrogen compounds, phosphorus), swelling as a result of sludge and filamentous bacteria as a result of its poor separation of purified water, a large amount of excess sludge which requires considerable handling and disposal.

Development status:
Development complete with proven results

Potential customers, markets:
Potential customers are treatment facilities as cities, towns, local (private), and industrial facilities (food industry, oil refinery, etc.).